In this fashion, the cabinet’s monopoly of perks and policy influence severely limits ways in which backbenchers can trade off policy influence against promotion.

However, while it is certainly true that neo-patrimonialism, indicated by unpredictability and bloated cabinets, will disrupt any reform efforts, genuine change does take place.

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The key to the cabinets was rusty from many years of disuse.

Switching from extensive to intensive modes of development seemed to be a hard task for the post-communist cabinets.

A photoperiod of 14 h per day was controlled by time clocks in all cabinets.

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All dung pads were placed into temperature cabinets and allowed 16 hours to equilibrate before the experimental material was introduced.

Levels of relative humidity were maintained within the range of 60-80% by providing free water in trays in the cabinets when necessary.

Temperature and relative humidity in each of the cabinets were recorded continuously with thermohygrographs.

Reducing airborne pathogens and dust in commercial hatching cabinets with an electrostatic space charge system.

The cabinet’s statement on euthanasia came shortly before the 1986 elections.

In parliamentary systems, cabinets generally are formed through the selection of partisan ministers.

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In short, under factionalized single-party cabinets, the president is more likely to face a ministry whose preferences differ from her own.

Since cabinets in our dataset average about twenty portfolios, this was achieved by collapsing the hypothetical party shares to the nearest 5 per cent.

Political experience measures how much cumulative experience is enjoyed by the cabinet’s leaders, regardless of whether they are switching from one portfolio to another.

Even under less trying circumstances, some non-partisan ministers may be drafted into ‘normal’ cabinets to contribute policy expertise that the parties may otherwise lack.

These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

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